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African Slave Trade, Slavery in Africa: African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part One

African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part One

1619 Project - New York Times
In 1619 "a ship arrived at Point Comfort in the British colony of Virginia, bearing a cargo of 20 to 30 enslaved Africans." "The goal of The 1619 Project is to reframe American history by considering what it would mean to regard 1619 as our nation’s birth year. Doing so requires us to place the consequences of slavery and the contributions of black Americans at the very center of the story we tell ourselves about who we are as a country."

1619 Project Curriculum - Pulitzer Center
"the year when the first enslaved Africans arrived on Virginia soil as our nation's foundational date."
Resources for law school professors, Lesson plans for schools.
Based in Washington, D.C.

An Account of the Congo Independent State, by Henry Phillips, Jr.
Full text on-line. In Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 26, No. 130 (Jul., 1889), pp. 459-476. From Google Books.

Africa, the Cradle of Human Diversity: Cultural and Biological Approaches to Uncover African Diversity
Editors: Cesar Fortes-Lima, Ezekia Mtetwa, and Carina Schlebusch
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, 2021
Series: Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol. 26
Free open access book.
Chapter 5. Diversity and Variability in the Preindustrial Iron-Smelting Technologies of Great Zimbabwe, Southern Africa. By Ezekia Mtetwa
Chapter 10. Disentangling the Impact of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in African Diaspora Populations from a Genomic Perspective. By Cesar A. Fortes-Lima

African Diaspora Archeology Network
Full text issues of its ADAN newsletter. Operates a discussion forum. Maintained by Dr. Christopher C. Fennell, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. [KF]

African Studies Center, Leiden. Library - Indian Ocean Slave Trade
Essay by Rijksmuseum (Amstrdam, Netherlands) Curator Maria Holtrop, extensive list of publications and web sites.

African Studies Quarterly - A Roundtable on Reparations
Includes "From Slave Ship to Space Ship: Africa Between Marginalization and Globalization" by Ali Mazrui, "Political Versus Legal Strategies for the African Slavery Reparations Movement" by Ricardo Laremont, "The Debt Has Not Been Paid; the Accounts Have Not Been Settled" by Dudley Thompson. Volume 2, Issue 4, [1998]. Electronic journal published by the Univ. of Florida, Center for African Studies.

Africans in America - October 19-22, 1998
"...a companion to Africans in America, a six-hour public television series. The Web site chronicles the history of racial slavery in the United States -- from the start of the Atlantic slave trade in the 16th century to the end of the American Civil War in 1865 -- " Covers People & Events, Historical Documents; has a Teacher's Guide.

AfriGeneas, African Ancestored Genealogy
Has an beginners' guide, discussion list, surnames database, U.S. censuses, a description of the Louisiana Slave Database, 1719-1820, ny Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, and other databases, transcripts of America On Line interviews in the Genealogy Forum with Professor Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and others, newspaper / journal articles, related sites. [KF]

Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1719-1820
Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, New Orleans writer and historian, assembled over 15 years a database of 100,000 slaves brought to Louisiana in the 18th and 19th centuries. Information was gathered from courthouses in Louisiana, and archives in France, Spain and Texas. Dr. Hall's database contains information about African slave names, gender, ages, occupations, illnesses, family relationships, ethnicity, places of origin, prices paid by slave owners, and slaves' testimony and emancipations. Through the free online database " locate individual slaves who lived in Louisiana between the years of 1718 and 1820..." Search by name, origin of the slaves, gender, racial designation, or plantation location. Includes a listing of slaves with African names, slaves involved in a conspiracy or a revolt against slavery, charts of characteristics, etc. One can download the slave database.

Ajayi, J. F. Ade - Unfinished Business: Confronting the Legacies of Slavery and Colonialism in Africa
18 p. in PDF. By Professor J. F. Ade Ajayi. "development remains elusive in Africa, not merely because of the misrule and warped personalities of many African leaders, but because Africa had been damaged severely, first by the slave trade, then by the colonialism which grew out of the slave trade."

Alpers, Edward A. - Sailing Into the Past. The African Experience in India
Article in Samar 13: Winter/Spring, 2000." "an overview of the history of Africans in India within the wider context of the African diaspora, and ........their presence in other regions of the Indian Ocean." " the meaningful presence of Africans in India probably dates from the rise of Islam in the seventh century c.e.," "The most renowned representative of this class of African slaves in India was Malik Ambar, ruler of Ahmadnagar from 1600 to 1626."

American Colonization Society, Library of Congress Exhibit
The U.S. Library of Congress holds the records of the American Colonization Society which established Liberia. Exhibit descriptions provide historical background on this period. The Colonization section is part of the African-American Mosaic exhibit.

Amistad America
Site for Freedom Schooner Amistad and Amistad America. The Freedom Schooner visits U.S. and international ports providing educational programs, interviews with the captain or crew on the history and the significance of the Amistad story, the transatlantic slave trade and present-day race relations. Recounts the story of the 1839 Amistad incident. Extensive curriculum resource center for elementary, middle school, and high school lesson plans. Based in New Haven, Connecticut.

Atlas of Mutual Heritage (Amsterdam)
A data-bank on the Dutch East India Company trading posts and settlements which will include paintings, drawings, maps (Madagascar, South Africa), prints and photographs (Accra, Ghana, South Africa). "The first stage of the project involves the collation of illustrative data in the collections of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Rijksdienst voor de Monumentenzorg in Zeist and the Algemeen Rijksarchief in The Hague. Stage 2 will include the collation of illustrative data relating to Dutch East India Co. settlements in other collections in the Netherlands and abroad." "The data-bank is primarily intended for storing information relating to VOC settlements in Africa and Asia as well as illustrations of these settlements. The AMH data-bank can also be adapted for supplementary modules: for example, the Portuguese East India Company, embassies and expeditions, Dutch monuments overseas from 1800 to the present day."

Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo. ; Moore, Samuel,; fl. 1854 - Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua a native of Zoogoo, in the interior of Africa (a convert of Christianity)
With a description of that part of the world, including the manners and customs of the inhabitants. Mahommah's early life, his education, his capture and slavery in Western Africa and Brazil, his escape to the United States, from thence to Hayti, (the city of Port Au Prince,) his reception by the Baptist Missionary there, the Rev. L. Judd; his conversion to Christianity, Baptism, and return to this country, his views, objects and aims. Full text. Detroit: Geo. E. Pomeroy & Co., 1854. 66 p. Electronic version by [Chapel Hill, N.C.] :; Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001. "Includes information about Central Africa "their religious notions, form of government, laws, appearance of the country, buildings, agriculture, manufactures, shepherds and herdsmen, domestic animals, marriage ceremonials, funeral services, styles of dress, trade and commerce, modes of warfare, system of slavery, &c., &c."

Benezet, Anthony - Some Historical Account of Guinea, Its Situation, Produce, and the General Disposition of Its Inhabitants and An Inquiry into the Rise and Progress of the Slave Trade, Its Nature and Lamentable Effects
Originally published (Philadelphia, 1771. c. 200 pages). Full text. From Project Gutenberg.

Black History Canada
In English and French. Annotated online resources about Canada's Black history. Mathieu Da Costa (a free Black African translator); Slavery in Canada; Timeline; Teachers' Section. "compiled by editors from The Canadian Encyclopedia (Historica-Dominion Institute) in consultation with Rosemary Sadlier, President of the Ontario Black History Society."

Breaking the Silence. The Transatlantic Slave Trade Education Project [UNESCO Digital Library]
"a joint initiative between UNESCO, Anti-Slavery International, the British Council and the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD)." Based in London, England. [KF]

Brinch, Boyrereau [Benjamin F. (Benjamin Franklin) Prentiss, 1774 or 5-1817] - "The Blind African Slave, or Memoirs of Boyrereau Brinch, Nick-named Jeffrey Brace
Containing an Account of the Kingdom of Bow-Woo, in the Interior of Africa; with the Climate and Natural Productions, Laws, and Customs Peculiar to That Place. With an Account of His Captivity, Sufferings, Sales, Travels, Emancipation, Conversion to the Christian Religion, Knowledge of the Scriptures, &c. Interspersed with Strictures on Slavery, Speculative Observations on the Qualities of Human Nature, with Quotation from Scripture." Imprint: St. Albans, Vt.: Printed by Harry Whitney, 1810. 204 p. Full text of the book. Part of the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Documenting the American South, North American Slave Narratives site.

Bristol and the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Compiled by Dr Madge Dresser and the Bristol Museums Black History Steering Group.

British Broadcasting Company. The Story of Africa
Older site, text only. "...the history of the continent from an African perspective." "from the origins of humankind to the end of South African apartheid" by major African historians (Jacob Ajayi, George Abungu, Director-General of the National Museums of Kenya and others). Each segment has a timeline, bibliography, useful links.

British History Online
Subscription is required for access. Covers England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales. From the Institute of Historical Research and the History of Parliament Trust. Database of primary and secondary sources, images and maps. Focus is on the period between 1300 and 1800. List of the British Secretaries of State 1794-1870. If you register (free), you can save a personal bookshelf of links to useful resources and use a split screen feature to compare two documents simultaneously. Based in London.

Lists theses in Africa in History Theses 1901-1970: Historical research for higher degrees in the universities of the United Kingdom. Originally published by Institute of Historical Research, London, 1976.
Full text of the House of Commons Journal. Examples:

  • Report from Committee on Sierra Leone, No. 661. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:
  • Petitions for abolition of Slavery. From: 'House of Commons Journal Volume 85: 13 July 1830', Journal of the House of Commons: volume 85: 1830, pp. 640-45. URL:
  • the Slave Trade - The trade in general has suffered greatly since I have known it, both as to the difficulty of obtaining slaves, and the price at which they are purchased; in the year 1763 a male slave might be bought at about £13 sterling, which now costs £23 gold, which is become a necessary article in the purchase of a slave, is obtained by the free trader with great difficulty. 

British Newspaper Archive
Read newspapers online.  Register with a password to see 3 free pages. $100 a year for unlimited accesses for individuals.  "a partnership between the British Library and findmypast to digitise up to 40 million newspaper pages from the British Library's vast collection"
Libraries subscribe to commercial databases which have newspapes. For ex. Nineteenth Century Collections has the newspapers African Mail, African World. British Citizen and Empire Worker.

British Online Archive. Slavery: supporters and abolitionists, 1675-1865
Requires a subscription. "documents concerning the African slave trade during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The papers focus primarily on Jamaica and the West Indies, but also cover the experience of other nations and regions."  Statistics, correspondence, pamphlets, memoir. Resources from the Bodleian Library, British Library, and others. Published by Microform Academic Publishers.  Temporary URL for Stanford trial access -

Topics include:
Report of the Commissioners on African Settlements: report on the slave trade', 1811; 
Report of the Select Committee on the West Coast of Africa, 1842; and 
'Ord report on the West Coast of Africa', 1865.  Formal title: Report of Colonel Ord, the Commissioner appointed to inquire into the condition of the British settlements on the West coast of Africa.
The trade in people: The slave trade in Africa and the West Indies.
Scottish trade with Africa and the West Indies in the early 18th century, 1694-1709.
Log and journal of the Bristol ship, Black Prince, 1762-1764', these detailed records reveal both where slaves were boarded and details of slave trading which took place on-board the ship. In cursive, can be difficult to read.

Some of the above is in - U.K. parliamentary papers.  Subscription database from Chadwyck-Healey,Proquest.

Bruner, Edward M. - "Tourism in Ghana: Representation of Slavery and the Return of the Black Diaspora"
Article in American Anthropologist, Journal of the American Anthropological Association, Volume 98, Number 2, June 1996, 290-304. Article reprinted on the web site of Manu Herbstein. The site is about Herbstein's book, "Ama, A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade."

Cambridge University Press - Race and Power Collection: Slavery
"a quarterly updated assortment of free online book chapters and journal articles that explores the intertwining concepts of race and power, on a global scale, from an interdisciplinary perspective."


  • Slavery and Slaving in African History
  • Sean Stilwell
  • The Enslavement of Africans, 1600–1800
  • Paul E. Lovejoy, York University, Toronto
  • Transformations in Slavery
  • A History of Slavery in Africa
  • 3rd edition
  • Paul E. Lovejoy

    Slavery and the slave trade in the Lower Senegal
  • James F. Searing, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Carey, Brycchan - "Ignatius Sancho: African Man of Letters"
 "Sancho (1729-1780) was born a slave on a ship crossing the Atlantic from Africa to the West Indies." "He composed music, appeared on the stage, and wrote a large number of letters which were collected and published in 1782, two years after his death." Has the full text of Joseph Jekyll's biography of Sancho, an annotated bibliography (including reviews, 19th c. commentary, music), selections from Sancho's Letters, biographies of those who knew him, maps and paintings of London in the mid 18th c., links to related sites, etc. Dr. Carey is a lecturer at Kingston University (Surrey, U.K.).

Carey, Brycchan - "Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African"
"Equiano (c.1745-1797) was born in what is now Nigeria. Kidnapped and sold into slavery in childhood..." "Coming to London he became involved in the movement to abolish the slave trade, an involvement which led to him writing and publishing The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa the African (1789) a strongly abolitionist autobiography." Has a map of Equiano's travels, an annotated bibliography, extracts from The Interesting Narrative..., arguments for and against the birthplace of Equiano, related web sites, etc.

Carey, Brycchan - "Quobna Ottobah Cugoano"
"Quobna Ottabah Cugoano was born in present-day Ghana in the 1750s. Kidnapped and taken into slavery, he worked on plantations in Granada before being brought to England, where he obtained his freedom." Site under construction.

Carey, Brycchan - Slavery Chronology
A chronology of slavery, abolition, and emancipation, from the fifteenth century to the present day with details of the main historical and cultural events related to slavery. Dr. Carey is Lecturer in English Literature, Kingston University, U.K. [KF]

Christine's Genealogy Website - Emigrants to Liberia
Links to sites with primary documents on the first Liberian emigrants. Has a Roll of Emigrants that have been sent to the colony of Liberia, Western Africa, by the American Colonization Society and its auxiliaries, to September, 1843, &c. with full text of passages from "Information relative to the operations of the United States squadron on the west coast of Africa, the condition of the American colonies there, and the commerce of the United States therewith," 28th Congress, 2d. Session, S. Doc. 150, serial 458. Includes 19th censuses, ships' passenger lists, etc. Maintained by Christine Charity, based in Pontiac, Michigan.

Colonial Voyage
Revolt of the slaves on Sao Tome, West Africa List of Portuguese colonial forts. List of Dutch colonial forts. Dutch in South Africa, Portuguese language heritage in Africa, European forts in Ghana, Madagascar, the Dutch in Mauritius, Bibliographies such as Dutch colonial history. Photographs. Maintained by Marco Ramerini from Firenze, Italy.

Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East (CSSAAME)
Trade, Politics, and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean. Volume XIX, No. 2, 1999 is a special issue guest edited by Edward A. Alpers. Pub. by Duke University Press.
Requires a subscription. Full text articles include:

  • Edward Alpers - Introduction. Trade, Politics and Identity in the Colonial Indian Ocean 2 p. in PDF. V
  • ijaya Teelock: The Influence of Slavery in the Formation of Creole Identity; [Mauritius]
  • Erik Gilbert: Sailing from Lamu and Back: Labor Migration and Regional Trade in Colonial East Africa
  • Charles Schaefer: "Selling at a Wash": Competition and the Indian Merchant Community in Aden Crown Colony
  • James R. Brennan: South Asian Nationalism in an East African Context: The Case of Tanganyika, 1914-1956.

Conference 2008 - Slavery and the Slave Trades in the Indian Ocean and Arab Worlds: Global Connections and Disconnections, Yale University, November 7-8
Site has closed.

Conference 2005 - Legacies of Slavery: Comparative Perspectives, 11 July 2005, Centre for Cross-Cultural Research, Australian National University
"...seeks to bring together scholars from history, literature, anthropology, art history and cultural studies to examine the indelible mark left by slavery on societies, ..." Site has closed.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
Biographies of persons who died between the years 1000 and 1930. Has a biography of Richard Pierpoint (sold as a slave from Senegal). A joint project of the University of Toronto and the Université Laval. [KF]

Digital Slavery Research Lab
Focuses on developing,.... archiving open-source data and multimedia related to slavery and human trafficking. ..... examines the historic Atlantic, Indian Ocean, and trans-Saharan slave trades. Based at the University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado.
Included are -

  • the Liberated Africans Project
  • Accounts of freed slaves and of the international courts which freed them (including the Sierra Leone Vice-Admiralty Court and the Havana Slave Trade Commission). "Between 1808 and 1896, international authorities began to seize and detain ships suspected of participating in the slave trade. Once these ships were seized or detained, a network of international courts "decided the fates of the survivors." Essays. Photographs and documents from the British National Archives, the Sierra Leone National Archives, other African archives and missionary societies. [KF]
  • The Yoruba Diaspora: A Cartographically Based Interactive Digital Archive (CBIDA)
  • Henry B. Lovejoy, has compiled geo-referenced data that are aligned with slave voyages to visualize the process whereby inland conflict became a source of captives who boarded slave ships destined for the Americas. The geographic scope of the project reflects an area in southwestern Nigeria, as well as parts of Benin and Togo. In the past, this area was dominated by several kingdoms that engaged in trading enslaved people. "

Documenting the American South
Has full text primary sources (books, monographs) including works by African-American missionaries in Africaslaves' accounts of Africa. The Education section has Lessons Plans. From the University Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Du Bois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 - The Souls of Black Folk; Essays and Sketches
Project Gutenberg provides the full-text of the book. Many editions were published beginning with the first edition in 1903.

DuBois, W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt), 1868-1963 - Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America 1638-1870
New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896. Project Gutenberg provides the full-text of the book.

Enslaved. Peoples of the Historic Slave Trade
A hub for web sites on the slave trade. Uses Linked Open Data (LOD) to interconnect individual projects and databases.  Track slaves who appear in multiple databases and run statistical analyses across many datasets rather than only one. Supported by the Mellon Foundation, Michigan State Univ. and others.

  • Journal of Slavery and Data Preservation "publishes original, peer-reviewed datasets about the lives of enslaved Africans and their descendants drawn from documents produced from the fifteenth to the early twentieth centuries." Based at Michigan State University, East Lansign, Michigan.

Enslaved Spaces
A map illustrating the history and geography of the slave trade in West and Central Africa between 1440-1860. Sites of slavery in Africa served three systems: the domestic slave trade, the trans-Saharan slave trade, and the transatlantic slave trade. Hosted by The African Diaspora Institute of Cultural Exchange and Historical Research, Inc. (C.E.H.R.). Based in Bronx, New York.

Equiano, Olaudah b. 1745 - The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself
Vol. I. London: Author, [1789]. Full text of the book. Electronic version by [Chapel Hill, N.C.] :; Academic Affairs Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2001.
See also the site Carey, Brycchan - "Olaudah Equiano, or, Gustavus Vassa, the African."

Esclavages & Post-esclavages /Slaveries & Post~Slaveries
Open access online journal began 2019. "revue internationale semestrielle. Pluridisciplinaire et multilingue, elle explore les spécificités des situations d’esclavages et de post-esclavages dans le monde, de l’Antiquité à nos jours." "éditée par le Centre international de recherches sur les esclavages et post-esclavages (CIRESC)."  History, literature and the arts in relatin to slavery and post-slavery. Based in Paris.