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African Slave Trade, Slavery in Africa: African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part Two

African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part Two

France. Sénat - Victor Schoelcher (1804-1893). Une vie, un siècle. L'esclavage d'hier à aujourd'hui
In French. Schoelcher fought to abolish slavery. Includes a chronology, modern day slavery, citations to books, articles (mainly in French).

In French. Books, articles, documents, maps, audio, photographs digitized by France's Bibliotheque nationale.

George Mason University. Center for History and New Media - Women in World History
Primary sources about women and gender with guidelines to using primary sources. Sources include excerpts from the 17th c. Journal of Jan van Riebeeck, letters of the grand-daughter of Jan van Riebeeck, rock art of the San, drawings, narrative of the Cape (Southern Africa) 1705 to 1713, the situation of slaves in the Cape, letter of Mary Moffat, narrative by Mary Kingsley, autobiography of Buchi Emecheta, African novels, excerpt from Tsitsi Dangarembga's novel Nervous Conditions.
Has a case study by Beverly Mack on Nana Asma'u, Muslim Woman Scholar and one by Jeremy D. Popkin, The Calling of Katie Makanya (South Africa 1873-1956) and a classroom module on Cultural Contact in Southern Africa (17th century including slavery). Holds online forums for teachers; the forum beginning October 1, 2005 is Women in World History. Beginning November 2005 is a forum on Women in Africa.

Google Books
Search for slave trade in Africa. On the top left where it says Any books, Select from the pull down menu
Free Google eBooks
Has lots of online keyword searchable [out of copyright] books.

Handler, Jerome
Jerome Handler's publications dealing with slavery in Barbados and the Atlantic World as well as some aspects of production activities in modern rural Barbados.

Hansard Corpus. British Parliament.
This Hansard corpus (or collection of texts) "contains nearly every speech given in the British Parliament from 1803-2005 (about 1.6 billion words total), and it allows you to search these speeches (including semantically-based searches)..." Search for speeches with the word slave, slavery.

Harvard Dataverse. World-Historical Dataverse
The public archive of the CHIA project, Collaborative for Historical Information and Analysis. Links academic and research institutions in North America and Europe—with ties to institutions in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Has -
Volume and Direction of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1650s-1870s: Patrick Manning, 2016
Slave Routes Datasets, 1650s - 1860s: Patrick Manning; Yu Liu, 2020
Annual cowrie exported from English to West Africa, 1700 to 1850: Jan Hogendorn, 2015

Annual cowrie exported from Dutch to West Africa, 1700 to 1799: Jan Hogendorn, 2015
Replication data for: African Population Estimates, 1850-1960:  Patrick Manning 2010

Hathi Trust
Has some full text books and documents. Some are the same as in Google Books.
Use the left hand menu,to Filter your search to
Full View
Use the Advanced Catalog Search and in the Subject box put in
Slave trade africa
The limited view titles can also lead you to interesting books.

Herbstein, Manu - "Ama: A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade"
Site for a 450 page novel on Ama, captured and enslaved in Ghana in the eighteenth century and taken to a sugar estate in Brazil. The novel recounts "the experience of enslavement and resistance, seen from the point of view of one African slave." Has excerpts and maps from the novel, bibliographies of related sources, excerpts from books related to Attitudes to Slavery and the Slave Trade, links to related sites. Manu Herbstein's book won the 2002 Commonwealth Writers Prize for Best First Book overall and for the Africa Region.

Access by Subscription only; some universities subscribe. There are links to on-line book reviews. Once you are within the book site, you can do keyword searches of the text.
Historians from the African Studies Association are selecting Africa-related titles.

Moderated discussion list "to promote interaction and exchange among scholars engaged in research on slavery, the slave trade, abolition, and emancipation....dedicated to the dissemination of information about the history of slavery and antislavery in all time periods and parts of the world." Subscribe at or at
To subscribe by e-mail, send a message from the account where
you wish to receive mail, to:
(with no signatures or styled text) and only this text:
sub H-Slavery firstname lastname, institution
Example: sub H-Slavery Leslie Jones, Pacific State U

International Slavery Museum, Liverpool, England
History of the slave trade (Africa before European slavery, European traders, Life on board slave ships, Arrival in the Americas, booklist, web sites). Videos, photographs. The Museum opened in 2007, the bicentenary of the 1807 British abolition of the slave trade.
See the New York Times article, A New Museum Is Frank in Its Exploration of the Slave-Trading Past, August 22, 2007

Internet African History Sourcebook - Paul Halsall
Has many full-text sources on the Impact of Slaveryincluding excerpts from "Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African" (London, 1789). Maintained by Paul Halsall, Fordham University. [KF]

Liberated Africans Project
Accounts of freed slaves andof the international courts which freed them (including the Sierra Leone Vice-Admiralty Court and the Havana Slave Trade Commission). "Between 1808 and 1896, international authorities began to seize and detain ships suspected of participating in the slave trade. Once these ships were seized or detained, a network of international courts "decided the fates of the survivors." Essays. Photographs and documents from the British National Archives, the Sierra Leone National Archives, other African archives and missionary societies.  [KF]

Library of Congress - Ancient Manuscripts from the Desert Libraries of Timbuktu
"Dating from the 16th to the 18th centuries, the ancient manuscripts... are indicative of the high level of civilization attained by West Africans during the Middle Ages." "The manuscripts...are from the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library and the Library of Cheick Zayni Baye of Boujbeha,..." Has images of the documents which concern Islamic knowledge of astronomy, law, the Songhai Empire, slavery, Sufi religion, mathematics, political governance, medical knowledge, attitude towards non-Muslims, trade. [KF]

Library of Congress - Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938 
"more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. Stanford also has the microfilm at

Library of Congress - Islamic Manuscripts from Mali
"...twenty-two Islamic manuscripts [in Arabic script] containing important insights into the life and culture of West Africans during the late Middle Ages and Early Modern Era." Topics include astrology, commerce, Islamic law, health care, mysticism, slavery, and agriculture. A project of the Library of Congress and the Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library of Timbuktu, Mali. photographs of Mali by Philip Harrington, as well as a selection of maps from the Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division.
Includes maps - Timbuktu in Space and Time, a history of Timbuktu as an Islamic cultural center, and Timbuktu architecture.

Library of Congress - Omar Ibn Said Collection 
In English and Arabic. Said was a West African slave in America from the Fula ethnic group. This is the "only known extant autobiography of a slave written in Arabic in America." Has an English translation of the autobiography. 42 documents  Also icludes accounts from a West African slave in Panama, and individuals located in West Africa.

Livingstone, David, "Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa"
Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa; Including a Sketch of Sixteen Years' Residence in the Interior of Africa, and a Journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda on the West Coast; Thence Across the Continent, Down the River Zambesi, to the Eastern Ocean. (London, 1857). Full-text of the book with information on slavery. Part of Project Gutenberg. Includes an 1858 review of the book in Harper's Magazine. [KF]

Livingstone (David) David Linvingstone Trust - National Memorial, Blantyre, Scotland
About the Livingstone Centre in Blantyre where Livingstone was born. Includes a biography of Livingstone.

Lodhi, Abdulaziz Y. - The Institution of Slavery in Zanzibar and Pemba
(Research Report 16) 43 p. Uppsala, Sweden, Scandivavian Institute of African Studies (now Nordiska Afrikainstitutet), 1973. Full text report. Appendix I: Categories of Africans and Arabs. [KF]

Lovejoy, Paul - "The African Diaspora: Revisionist Interpretations of Ethnicity, Culture and Religion under Slavery"
On the Internet Archive: Wayback Machine.

Lovejoy, Paul E. (ed.) / Africans in bondage: studies in slavery and the slave trade: essays in honor of Philip D. Curtin on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of African Studies at the University of Wisconsin (1986)
Full text. From the University of Wisconsin Libraries.

  • Chapter 1: when did smallpox reach the New World (and why does it matter)?, Henige, David
  • Chapter 2: the company trade and the numerical distribution of slaves to Spanish America, 1703-1739, Palmer, Colin A.
  • Chapter 3: slave prices in the Portuguese southern Atlantic, 1600-1830, Miller, Joseph C.
  • Chapter 6: Anast?cia and the slave women of Rio de Janeiro, Karasch, Mary
  • Chapter 5: healing and race in the South Carolina low country, Shick, Tom W.
  • Chapter 6: the slave trade in Niger Delta oral tradition and history, Alagoa, E. J.
  • Chapter 7: the Atlantic slave trade and the Gabon Estuary: the Mpongwe to 1860, Bucher, Henry
  • Chapter 8: Kru emigration to British and French Guiana, 1841-1857, Schuler, Monica
  • Chapter 9: slave trade, "legitimate" trade, and imperialism revisited: the control of wealth in the Bights of Benin and Biafra, Manning, Patrick
  • Chapter 10: problems of slave control in the Sokoto Caliphate, Lovejoy, Paul E.
  • Chapter 11: ex-slaves, transfrontiersmen and the slave trade: the Chikunda of the Zambesi Valley, 1850-1900, Isaacman, Allen
  • Chapter 12: slaves into soldiers: social origins of the Tirailleurs Senegalais, Echenberg, Myron
  • Chapter 13: warlords and enslavement: a sampleof slave raiders from eastern Ubangi-Shari, 1870-1920, Cordell, Dennis D.

Mali Magic - Google Arts & Culture
Mali's manuscripts, music, monuments & contemporary Mali art.
Short general articles, are not signed. Many images, photographs of Mali.
Includes -

Reflections on Slavery and Human Rights in Timbuktu
How Timbuktu Protected Its Trove of Manuscripts
The Art of Storytelling in the Timbuktu Manuscripts
The Timbuktu Manuscripts and the Human Right to Education
Timbuktu Home to a Humanist and Tolerant Islam
Malian Medical Manuscripts
Early Exploration of the Earth and Stars
The Role of Mathematics in the Peace (and Manuscripts) of Timbuktu

Mariners Museum. Water of Depair, Waters of Hope. African Americans and the Chesapeake Bay
Short articles on the slave trade. Based in Newport News, Virginia.

Massachusetts Historical Society - African Americans and the End of Slavery in Massachusetts
Historical manuscripts and rare published works on the lives of African Americans in Massachusetts from the late seventeenth century through the abolition of slavery in Massachusetts in the 1780s. "Massachusetts and Rhode Island were the principal slave trading colonies in New England."

Mémoire libérées. Tourisme et Dialogue des Mémoires autour des sites de l'Esclavage
In French. "L’association Les Anneaux de la Mémoire, créée en 1991, a pour objectif de mieux faire connaître l’histoire de la traite négrière, de l’esclavage et de leurs conséquences contemporaine...." Online exhibition on the Atlantic slave trade. Has projects in Senegal and Cameroun, Antigua & Barbuda and Haiti.  Based in Nantes, France. [KF]

Mintz, Stephen - Excerpts from Slave Narratives
Primary documents including:

  • A European slave trader, John Barbot, describes the African slave trade (1682)
  • A Muslim merchant, Ayubah Suleiman Diallo, recalls his capture and enslavement (1733)
  • Olaudah Equiano, an 11-year old Ibo from Nigeria remembers his kidnapping into slavery (1789)
  • Olaudah Equiano describes West African religious beliefs and practices (1789)
  • Charles Ball remembers a slave funeral, which incorporated traditional African customs (1837). Prof. Mintz teaches in the Department of History, University of Texas (Austin). [KF]

Mystic Seaport Museum
Has THE AMISTAD REBELLION by Dr. Marcus Rediker and for educators, The Amistad Case with primary sources from the U.S.National Archives. The Amistad ship uprising "set off an intense legal, political, and popular debate over the slave trade, slavery, race, Africa, and ultimately America itself." The Museum is located in Mystic, Connecticut. [KF]