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African Slave Trade, Slavery in Africa: African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part Three

African Slave Trade and Slavery in Africa, Part Three

National Archives of England - The Black Presence: Asian and Black History in Britain, 1500-1850
"People of African and Asian origin have lived in Britain for at least two thousand years. But this aspect of our heritage has been largely forgotten." "The word 'Black' is used here to denote people of African descent; 'Asian' to describe people of South Asian origin (from modern India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, the area that formed the British territory of India);..." History, paintings, photographs, bibliographies. Black Romans, Atlantic Slave Trade, Africa and the Caribbean, India. Music, Theatre, Literature. Historical tour of London, Bristol, Liverpool.

National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, United Kingdom
The Slave Trade.
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade.
Transatlatnic Slave Trade and Abolition
Photographs, images.

National Museums Liverpool. Transatlantic Slave Trade

New York Historical Society - Slavery in New York
Exhibit opens October 7, 2005

New York Public Library, Schomburg Center - Lest We Forget: The Triumph Over Slavery
In English, French, Spanish, Portuguese. Online exhibit on the transatlantic slave trade. On the occasion of 2004 the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition. Includes photographs, art work. Curated by Howard Dodson of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.

Nunn, Nathan - Slavery, Institutional Development, and Long-Run Growth in Africa, 1400-2000
Pub. October 4, 2004. 50 pages, in pdf. "Can Africa's current state of under-development be partially attributed to the large trade in slaves that occurred during the........ slave trades?" "........I combine shipping data with historical records that report slave ethnicities and construct measures of the number of slaves exported from each country in Africa between 1400 and 1913. I find the number of slaves exported from a country to be an important determinant of economic performance in the second half of the 20th century." Nunn is a Ph.D. candidate, Department of Economics and Institute for Policy Analysis, University of Toronto.

Ohio University. Libraries. History of the Atlantic Slave Trade
A LibGuide with major reference works, primary sources, how to evaluate sources. Striking graphics. By Jeffrey Shane, Southeast Asia Reference Librarian, Alden Library, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.

Oxford Bibliographies: African Studies
Requires a subscription.
Has annotated reading lists on 

  • Slavery in Africa
  • E.S.D. Fomin
  • Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Herbert S. Klein
  • Slavery and Empire
  • Christian Pinnen
  • Women and Slavery
  • Claire C. Robertson
  • Atlantic History - The Origins of Slavery
  • Michael Guasco
  • Slavery
  • Silvia Scarpa
  • Literature, Slavery, and Colonization
  • Madeleine Dobie
  • Victorian Literature- Slavery and Antislavery
  • Katie McGettigan
  • Portuguese Atlantic World
  • John M. Monteiro, Susanne Lachenicht 

Ponta de Lança: Revista Eletrônica de História, Memória & Cultura
In Portuguese. E history journal. Has articles on the slave trade. Published by Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de História e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em História. Based in Sergipe, Brazil.

Qatar Digital Library (Qatar Foundation, the Qatar National Library, and the British Library)
In English and Arabic. "archives, maps, manuscripts, sound recordings, photographs and much more,...with contextualised explanatory notes and links" Has India Office Records 1763–1951.

Topics include slavery, the slave trade, ZanzibarMombasa (also spelled mombassa), East Africa
Articles by experts such as on the India Office Private Papers, Mombasa: Britain’s Shortest-Lived Protectorate?, Between Freedom and Slavery: The Employment of Runaway Slaves in the Indian Navy, The Arabic Manuscripts Collection in the British Library. [KF]

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture - "In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience"
African-American migration over the past 400 years, including the The Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1450s-1867. Essays, historical photographs, maps, lesson plans, and documents.

  • OVERVIEW with an essay, "International Slave Trade: Causes and Consequences" by Paul E. Lovejoy, (York University), with statistics on slave exports from Africa, Regional Origins of Enslaved Africans Destined for the Americas, Proportion of Children and Females among the Enslaved Africans Crossing the Atlantic, Mortality among the Enslaved Population of the Middle Passage, Origins of Enslaved Africans Shipped to North America.
  • "Ethnicity in the Modern Atlantic World" from The Rise of African Slavery In The Americas, by David Eltis
  • Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, a Native of Zoogoo by Baquaqua, Mahommah Gardo and Moore, Samuel, fl. 1854.

Shick, Tom W., Roll of the Emigrants to the Colony of Liberia Sent by the American Colonization Society from 1820-1843
The raw data and documentation which records all emigrants to Liberia between 1820-1843, brought by the American Colonization Society can be downloaded. The data set includes place of origin/arrival, status of individual, occupation, name of the ship which carried the emigrant, etc. Bundled with this is the data set, Liberian Census Data, 1843. The late,Tom Shick, Dept. of Afro-American Studies, Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, was Principal Investigator of this project.

Slave Biographies: The Atlantic Database Network
The identities of enslaved people in the Atlantic World, their names, ethnicities, skills, occupations, and illnesses. Has three data sets: one about slaves in Maranhão, Brazil, one about slaves in colonial Louisiana, and another about freed slaves in Antebellum Louisiana. Has a Directory of online datasets. Originated with the databases of Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and Walter Hawthorne.

Slave Movement During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
Contains raw data and documentation. Includes:

  • Curtin, Philip D. and Herbert S. Klein. Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843
  • Curtin, Philip D. Slave Ships of Eighteenth Century France, 1748-1756, 1763-1792
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1795-1811
  • Klein, Herbert S. Virginia Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1727-1769
  • Klein, Herbert S. English Slave Trade, 1791-1799 (House of Lords Survey)
  • Klein, Herbert S. Angola Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1723-1771
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1825-1830
  • Klein, Herbert S. Internal Slave Trade to Rio de Janeiro, 1852
  • Klein, Herbert S. Slave Trade to Havana, Cuba, 1790-1820
  • Klein, Herbert S. Nantes Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1711-1791
  • Engerman, Stanley L. and Herbert S. Klein. Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808
  • Distributed by Data and Program Library Service University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Slave Registers [Angola]
Slave registers in Luanda, Angola and in the districts of the interior, with names, sexes, places of origin, ages, body marks, and occupations of captives, as well as the names and the places of residence of slave owners.  "this data most likely accurately indicates the range of uses of slave labor in Luanda and the immediate interior following 1850,"  "the slave trade transformed slavery from a marginal institution into a central element of African societies. In fact, after the prohibition of slave exports in the nineteenth century, the use of captives in productive activities intensified within Africa." The Project Director is Vanessa S. Oliveira.  The site results from Dr. Oliveira's project “A Social History of Slavery in Luanda, 1854-1873."  [KF]

Slave Societies Digital Archive
In Portuguese, some English. 17th, 18th, 19th century archival materials documenting the history of Africans and their descendants in the Atlantic World.  Catholic Church baptismal records from Brazil, Ouidah (now in Benin). For Ouidah, baptismal handwritten records, in Portuguese, cover 1866-1884. Records from Luanda (Angola) have not been authorized for web publication but can be consulted at Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee. The Luanda collection covers late 18th and early 19th century baptismal records. Directed by Jane Landers.    Based at Vanderbilt University. [KF]

Slave Trade, Slavery Abolitions and Their Legacies in European Histories and Identities

WP1 - Frontiers, nationalism, feelings of belonging

WP2 - Atlantic Slave Trades, Trade Connection and Forced Labour

WP3 - Law, regulations, practices and social connections

WP4 - Constructing Otherness: Circulation and Identity in Europe

WP5 - Slavery and slaves in continental Europe

WP6 - Interaction between research and education

WP7 - Dissemination and transfer of knowledge


Slave Voyages
Trans-Atlantic and Intra-American slave trade databases. Timeline and chronology, maps. African Names database.  Types of African resistance, vessel names, captain's names, starting & ending ports, "place of purchase",  lesson plans for grades 6-12. Site creators include Emory University, University of California - Irvine, University of Califorrnia - Santa Cruz, Harvard University.

Slavery, abolition and social justice, 1490-2007
Open to licensed users. Primary source documents, maps, essays, tutorials, images, a chronology and bibliography. Produced by Adam Matthew Publications.

Slavery and Abolition (Abingdon, U.K.)
Journal. Table of contents online; full text access requires a subscription which some universities have. Has an annual bibliography on slavery. "journal devoted in its entirety to a discussion of the demographic, socio-economic, historical and psychological aspects of human bondage from the ancient period to the present. It is also concerned with the dismantling of the slave systems and with the legacy of slavery." Published by Taylor & Francis, U. K.

Slavery & anti-slavery [electronic resource] : a transnational archive
Open to licensed users.  Books, serials, manuscript collections, supreme court records, articles, websites, biographies, chronology, bibliographies. Produced by Gale,Cengage Learning.

Slavery and Manumission Manuscripts of Timbuktu
"From the Bibliothèque Commémorative Mama Haidara in Timbuktu, Mali, a collection of 19th century manuscripts relating to slavery and manumission in Timbuktu. The materials, in Arabic script , provide documentation on Africans in slavery in Muslim societies." Browse the 206 mss. by subject. Project of the Center for Research Libraries, the Cooperative Africana Microform Project, CAMP, and Northwestern University. CRL Catalog Record. [KF]

Slavery and the Making of America
PBS television series (first aired Feb. 9, 2005). "four-part series documenting the history of American slavery from its beginnings in the British colonies to its end in the Southern states and the years of post-Civil War Reconstruction." "Episode one opens in the 1620s with the introduction of 11 men of African descent and mixed ethnicity into slavery in New Amsterdam." Chronology, resources for teachersannotated book list for studentsvirtual museums prepared by four groups of students, on-line resources. See also a review of the TV series by David W. Blight, "America: Made and Unmade by Slavery" in The Chronicle Review, Feb. 4, 2005. [KF]

Slavery @ the Cape of Good Hope in both Dutch and British South Africa
Contents include (from book sources) the Cape slave code of 1754, social conditions of slaves at the Cape, a timeline of slavery at the Cape, an extensive bibliography, scholars of slave history, etc. Hosted on the Dutch East India Company website of the University of Ghent (Belgium).Site by Mogamat G Kamedien. [KF]

Slavery Images: A Visual Record of the African Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Early African Diaspora
Over 1,200 images. Portraits of individuals, maps, capture of slaves, pre-colonial Africa, European forts / trading posts in Africa, slave ships, slave auctions, etc.  Site maintained by Professor Jerome S. Handler. [KF]

Societies After Slavery: A Select Annotated Bibliography of Printed Sources on Cuba, Brazil, British Colonial Africa, South Africa, and the British West Indies
Edited by Rebecca J. Scott, Thomas C. Holt, Frederick Cooper, and Aims McGuinness. Originally published as a print book - Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, c2002. Full text. Covers British Colonial Africa and South Africa. Each section has an essay and annotated entries. Compilers include Fred Cooper, Pamela Scully, etc. "the definitive resource for scholars and students engaged in research on postemancipation societies in the Americas and Africa." Part of the Univ. of Pittsburg Digital Library.

South African History Online - History of slavery and early colonisation in South Africa
Timeline. Many essays.  "South African History Online (SAHO) was established in 2000, as a not for profit Section 21 organisation, to address the biased way in which South Africa’s history.."  Founded by Omar Badsha.

Spartacus Internet Encyclopedia - British History 1700-1930: The Slave Trade
Includes passages from primary sources, illustrations. Accounts of Olaudah Equiano, Olaudah Equiano, Zamba Zembola, and others. Covers the slave system, life, Amistad, anti-slavery legislation, anti-slavery organizations, etc.  From Spartacus Educational and Schoolnet (a U.K. company providing internet service to schools).

[Speedy] Sarah Speedy: Daughter of Colonel Squire, Wife of Major Speedy ~ Recollections 1818 to 1859
Edited by Allan Lawrence Tristram Speedy. Full text account. 33 p. Sarah Speedy relates her travels in India, Mauritius, South Africa from 1818-1859, meeting with Robert Moffat, the missionary, helping Colonel Graham mark out Grahamstown, brief comments on slaves and other events. Allan Speedy, the great great grandson of Sarah Speedy, lives in New Zealand. [KF]

Stanford University. Senegal Liberations Project
Faculty: Joel Cabrita (History); Richard Roberts (History); Rebecca Wall; and Fatoumata Seck (French and Italian)
"Between 1857 and 1903, 28,930 enslaved Africans walked away from their African masters and sought freedom and freedom papers from French colonial officials in Senegal. Who they were, where they came from, and how they made their way to freedom are central questions we are asking."

Répertoire 1857-1904 [microform] : [libérations].
[Dakar] : Atelier de microfilm, Direction des archives du Sénégal, Annexe, 2002.
Database and 7 microfilm reels.
"Slave emancipation registries from the colonial administration of Senegal. The first entry was recorded on August 6, 1857, and the last was May 16, 1904. In all, there were 20 record books for slave liberations. While the format changed over the years, the general system used by the colonial government was the following: name of slave, place of birth (if available), age, place of liberation within the colony of Senegal, date of liberation, and name of the colonial administrator."

Stanford University, The Slave Trade
A selection of microform sources and print sources for studying the slave trade. In Stanford and outside Stanford. Notes for a two-week seminar.

Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation
Ceased publication. The Internet Archive has limited content. E-journal edited by Patrick Manning, John Saillant and Anthony Henderson-Whyte. Essays, documents, images, bibliographies and database information relevant to the history of slavery, abolition, and emancipation. Vol. 1, No. 1 is August 1996.*/

This Far by Faith: African-American Spiritual Journeys
Site for the TV program. Site does not work in some older browsers. Includes a profile of Olaudah Equiano, an essay on Religion in Africa, and a timeline beginning with 1526: the first North American slave revolt. Estimated Number of Africans Exported By Region, Estimated Number of Africans, Imported to the Americas,1451-1870. "a co-production of Blackside Inc. and The Faith Project, Inc. in association with the Independent Television Service. [KF]

UNESCO. Slave Route Project

United Kingdom. National Archives
Classroom resources on:
Abolition of Slavery
Slavery. How did the Abolition acts of 1807 and 1833 affect slavery?
Transatlantic Teachers Resources 2011


UK. parliamentary papers

[Cambridge, U.K.] : Chadwyck-Healey  License required for access. Has the full text of   -

Command papers, 1802-1910, Hansard, 1803-2005

Debates, 1774-1805, Histories and proceedings, 1660-1743.

House of Commons Papers, 1715-2010, Bills and acts, 1695-2015

Public petitions, 1833-1918, House of Lords Papers , 1714-1910, Journals, 1688-1834

Includes House of Commons sessional papers from 1715 to the present, with supplementary material back to 1688. I     

Has some African annual Colonial Reports.

Guide on using the database -


United States, Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, 19th Century maps of Liberia
"...includes twenty examples from the American Colonization Society (ACS), organized in 1817 to resettle free black Americans in West Africa. These maps show early settlements in Liberia, indigenous political subdivisions, and some of the building lots that were assigned to settlers. This on-line presentation also includes other nineteenth-century maps of Liberia: a map prepared for a book first published in the 1820's by ACS agent Jehudi Ashmun, a map showing the areas in Liberia that were ceded to the society by indigenous chiefs, and a detailed map dated 1869 by a man thought to be the black American explorer Benjamin Anderson."  Has a History of Liberia Timeline.  [KF]

United States. Library of Congress. Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860
"Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860, contains just over a hundred pamphlets and books (published between 1772 and 1889) concerning the difficult and troubling experiences of African and African-American slaves in the American colonies and the United States." "trials and cases, reports, arguments, accounts, examinations of cases and decisions, proceedings, journals, a letter, and other works.....Of the cases presented here, most took place in America and a few in Great Britain."

University of Illinois, Chicago - Sierra Leone collection with supplements about the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1734-1948
In 1791, a British group, the Sierra Leone Company, sought to give free land in Africa to former black slaves and also to make money by trading African goods. Thanks to the American Revolution, some slaves were able to free themselves and got protection from the British. In 1792, Lt. John Clarkson, who worked for the Sierra Leone Company, took 1,100 of these freed slaves from Nova Scotia to Sierra Leone. The town, Freetown, was established. The collection contains documents and letters from British officials based in Sierra Leone, letters from [Sierra Leone] King Naimbanna, town diagrams, slave ship diagramsFinding aid:

University of Virginia. Liberian Letters
The Univ. of Virginia, Electronic Text Center, provides the full text of two collections of letters written by former slaves from Virginia who settled in Liberia: Samson Ceasar's letters to David S. Haselden and Henry F. Westfall, 1834-1835, and Letters from the former slaves of Terrell, 1857-1866. The letters are held by University of Virginia Library Special Collections. [KF]

Vink, Marcus - "The World's Oldest Trade": Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century"
Article in Journal of World History, Vol. 14, No. 2, June 2003. "discusses various aspects of slavery and the slave trade of the Dutch East India Company in the Indian Ocean world: the markets of supply and demand or geographic origins and destinations of slaves; the routes to slavery or the diverse means of recruitment of forced labor; the miscellaneous occupations performed by company and private slaves; the size of Dutch slavery....."

Virginia Emigrants to Liberia
"Between 1820 and 1865 more than 3700 African Americans from Virginia emigrated to Liberia." "In 1847, they helped establish the first African republic." Database of nearly 3700 Virginia emigrants to Liberia and nearly 250 Virginia emancipators, "a timeline of relevant events and documents between 1787 and 1866,.." Material from Marie Tyler-McGraw's research for her book on Virginia's role in the African colonization movement.

Voyage of the Slave Ship Sally
"In 1764, a.... brigantine called the Sally embarked from Providence, Rhode Island, to West Africa on a slaving voyage. The ship was owned by Nicholas Brown and Company, a Providence merchant firm run by four brothers – Nicholas, John, Joseph, and Moses Brown." The four Brown brothers were deeply involved in the founding of what later became Brown University. The web site is a "project developed by the Brown University Scholarly Technology Group, ....the Center for Digital Initiatives, the John Carter Brown Library, and Professor James Campbell" [now of Stanford University]. Maintained by Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice, Providence, Rhode Island.

Wilberforce, William
"British politician and philanthropist who from 1787 was prominent in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and then to abolish slavery itself in British overseas possessions." - Encyclopedia Britannica.

  • Open University - Wilberforce. Online course on William Wilberforce Includes primary source documents. The Open University is a U.K. distance education  institution established in the 1960s, incorporated by Royal Charter, an exempt charity in England & Wales
  • Amazing Grace in Wikipedia -  Movie about Wilberforce. Opened Feb. 2007. Senegalese music star, Youssou N'Dour, is Olaudah Equiano in the movie.

World Digital Library - Travels into the Inland Parts of Africa: Containing a Description of the Several Nations for the Space of Six Hundred Miles up the River Gambia.
A 1730s journal of Francis Moore of the  the Royal African Company, concerns pre-colonial Gambia and the slave trade. Maintained by the U.S. Library of Congress.

Yale Slavery and Abolition Portal
From the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition and the Instructional Technology Group, Yale University. Primary source documents "related to slavery, abolition, and resistance within ...  [Yale University's] libraries and galleries"

Yale University. Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance and Abolition
The "Center seeks to promote a better understanding of all aspects of the Atlantic Slave System, including the Africans' resistance to enslavement, the black and white abolitionist movements, and of the ways in which slavery finally came to an end." Has a Lesson Plan with narrative, timeline, documents on the Amistad Case. Has the introduction and bibliography to"Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa" by Lamin Sanneh. See entry under Sanneh.

York University. Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and Its Diasporas
Has Slavery Old and New. Based at York University, Toronto, Canada.