The Equal Justice Initiative is committed to ending mass incarceration and excessive punishment in the United States, to challenging racial, housing and economic injustice, and to protecting basic human rights for the most vulnerable people in American society. They have an online calendar with facts and images about our history that are not well known but are critically important to understanding the history of America.
Mapping Inequality, created by researchers at four universities, shares nationwide historical data on redlining--the use of maps with graded areas to discourage home loans in neighborhoods with Black and immigrant residents. Mapping Inequality brings one of the country's most important archives to the public. The documents from federal government's Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC) contain a wealth of information about how government officials, lenders, and real estate interests surveyed and ensured the economic health of American cities. And with the help of ongoing research, we continue to learn at what cost such measures were realized.
Civil forfeiture laws allow the government to take cash, cars, homes and other property suspected of being involved in criminal activity. Unlike criminal forfeiture, with civil forfeiture, the property owner doesn’t have to be charged with, let alone convicted of, a crime to permanently lose his property. Once your property has been seized by the government there is a byzantine process to get it back. This Institute for Justice website explains the steps and pitfalls for navigating a federal forfeiture case.
The Urban Institute is the trusted source for unbiased, authoritative insights that inform consequential choices about the well-being of people and places in the United States. We are a nonprofit research organization that believes decisions shaped by facts, rather than ideology, have the power to improve public policy and practice, strengthen communities, and transform people’s lives for the better.
This website from Campaign Zero has illustrated maps of the human costs associated with search warrants, the practice of military-style warrant executions has led to trauma, injuries, and many deaths of innocent people, subjects, and officers, alike. By creating a more rigorous application process, ensuring law enforcement intelligence is accurate, and prescribing the warrant execution requirements, we can prevent this widespread and unnecessary damage. Additionally, by increasing officer accountability measures, those who are wrongly harmed in warrant executions are more likely to see justice served in cases of botched warrant executions.
The Schomburg Center's new research guide on Green Books provides a starting point for exploring the history and context of Green Books, from articles to books. View the digitized Green Books in the Schomburg Center's collections. Explore the Schomburg Center's Green Books collection with an interactive mapping tool. Map a trip with Green Books or view a Green Books map.
My90 collects anonymous data so that people feel safe giving honest feedback that can improve performance. We identify stakeholders, engage diverse communities, and generate actionable insights. We work with a wide range of partners on use cases that include police contact, internal DEI, and public services.
On the Books: Jim Crow and Algorithms of Resistance is a collections as data and machine learning project of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Libraries with the goal of discovering Jim Crow and racially-based legislation signed into law in North Carolina between Reconstruction and the Civil Rights Movement (1866/67-1967).
NCSL, with support from Arnold Ventures, has produced a comprehensive, first-of-its kind database of law enforcement statutes. State Legislatures consider and enact laws that address many aspects of law enforcement policy. State law can set the baseline for the standard of practice in states, creating a foundation for state regulatory agencies and local jurisdictions to expand upon. The database paints a picture of what this baseline looks like in the states, covering a number of policy areas that play a key role in law enforcement effectiveness and accountability.
Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies (CSLLEA) provides data on all state and local law enforcement agencies operating nationwide. Data collected include the number of sworn and civilian personnel by state and type of agency, and functions performed by each agency.
Citizens Police Data Project (CPDP) takes records of police interactions with the public – records that would otherwise be buried in internal databases – and opens them up to make the data useful to the public, creating a permanent record for every CPD police officer. The Invisible Institute has collaborated over the last fifteen years with civil rights attorneys and law students at the University of Chicago Law School which brought six federal civil rights suits on behalf on public housing residents and represented a case that in 2014 yielded a landmark decision establishing that in Illinois police misconduct files are public information.
‘Segregated By Design’ examines the forgotten history of how our federal, state and local governments unconstitutionally segregated every major metropolitan area in America through law and policy. You can read the book that the film is based on, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How our Government Segregated America by Richard Rothstein.
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The Electronic Frontier Foundation is the leading nonprofit organization defending civil liberties in the digital world. Founded in 1990, EFF's mission is to ensure that technology supports freedom, justice, and innovation for all people of the world. From Automated License Plate Readers in Azusa, CA, to face recognition in Newark, NJ, law enforcement agencies across the country have acquired an arsenal of privacy-invasive surveillance technologies. Government use of spy tech can lead to false arrests, disparately burden BIPOC and immigrant members of our communities, invade our privacy and deter free speech.
This library guide was compiled by Howard University for students and faculty and the public as an introduction to resources on the topics of (1) racial disparity, (2) racial diversity, (3) implicit bias and microaggression, (4) cultural sensitivity, and (5) protests. This annotated bibliography focuses on resources in books, articles (both scholarly and for broad readership), websites, blogs, short videos, and organizations.
A significant number of Ann Arbor, Michigan suburbs and individual houses have racially-restrictive sections in their covenants — which bar people of color, particularly Black Americans, from home ownership — according to research from University of Michigan Law professor Michael Steinberg and Urban Planning assistant professor Robert Goodspeed. Their findings to the Ann Arbor Planning Commission aimed to raise awareness about the covenants included in many Ann Arbor residents’ deeds and the looming presence of racism they said many locals are ignorant of. The hyperlink in the second paragraph of this article to their "presentation" links to a YouTube video that shows the map.
This data was compiled by the Mapping Prejudice Project and shows the location of racial covenants recorded in Hennepin County between 1910 and 1955. Racial covenants were legal clauses embedded in property records that restricted ownership and occupancy of land parcels based on race. These covenants dramatically reshaped the demographic landscape of Hennepin County in the first half of the twentieth century. In 1948, the United States Supreme Court ruled racial covenants to be legally unenforceable in the Shelly v. Kraemer decision. Racial covenants continued to be inserted into property records, however, prompting the Minnesota state legislature to outlaw the recording of new racial covenants in 1953. The same legislative body made covenants illegal in 1962. The practice was formally ended nationally with the passage of the Fair Housing Act in 1968.